20th Century I November 5th, 2010 Go Pushkin

Slovak History

Slovakia in the First Half of 20th Century.

The First Half of 20th Century

27. 02. 1902 Ludovit Fulla
Top Slovak artist Ludovit Fulla was born. He was a close friend with other top Slovak modern painter Mikulas Galanda. Fulla is famous for his fusion of cubism and Slovak folklore.

09. 03. 1903 Frano Kral
Famous Slovak writer Frano Kral was born in Barton USA . At age of two he moved with his mother back to poor conditions in Slovakia, where he wrote many excellent novels.

12. 04. 1903 Frantisek Kristof Vesely
One of the first Slovak actors Frantisek Kristof Vesely was born In Skalica. He started in theatre, later on appeared in TV as well, not just as an actor, but as a popular singer.

09. 01. 1906 Earthquake in Dobra Voda
Earthquake in Dobra Voda on 9th Jan 1906 was the largest in Slovakia during 20th century. Most buildings were damaged, as well as the church in neighboring Hradiste.

29. 04. 1907 Rudolf Macudzinski
Music composer Rudolf Macudzinski was born in Opatija (Croatia). He comes from a Polish family of musicians, studied in brno and Prague and was active in Bratislava from 1930.

18. 01. 1908 Dionyz Ilkovic
One of the most important Slovak scientists was born, one of the founders of polarography, known for his Ilkovic’s equation the basic rule of polarography.

22. 03. 1908 Solidarity Actions
In the Czech and Moravian parts of the Monarchy, 700 protest meetings were held against political and national repression of Slovaks in the Monarchy. About three quarters of a million Czechs took part.

24. 03. 1909 Ladislav Cemicky
Slovak artist Ladislav Cemicky was born. He studied in Budapest and Paris. After his return home he was teaching at the Academy of Fine Arts in Bratislava, since it has been established.

10. 04. 1909 Idea of Slovak Independence
For the first time the idea of Slovak independence was published. The newspaper “Slovensky Dennik” in Pittsburgh, edited by Slovak immigrants published an article about the need of Slovak Independence.

21. 04. 1910 Jozef Herda
Wrestler Jozef Herda was born in Trnava. He was an exceptional talent in wrestling, although started in a later age, soon entered international competitions and in the olympics in Berlin won Silver Medal.

29. 01. 1912 Jozef Kostka
In a well known family of pottery artists Jozef Kostka was born. He had been studying in Brno, Prague and Paris, later on working and living in Bratislava. He belongs to the best Slovak sculptists.

03. 03. 1918 World War I. Treaty
In Brest-Litovsk there has been sighed a Peace Treaty between the WW I. fighting countries. Russia had to free all prisoners-of-war, so 50 thousand Slovaks were able to return home.

01. 03. 1920 Slovak National Theatre
With Bedrich Smetana’s piece “Hubicka” in Bratislava started the activity of Slovak National Theatre. The building used to belong before to the City Theatre.

20. 04. 1920 Zavis Bochnicek
In Prague a well known astronomer Zavis Bochnicek was born. In the age of 16 he discovered two novae. He lived in Slovakia and as a director of Astronomical Institute which was focusing on research on satellites and stars evolution.

13. 02. 1921 First Slovak Bishops
In Nitra the first three Slovak catholic bishops were inaugurated – Karol Kmetko, Marian Blaha and Jan Vojtassak.

20. 03. 1924 Jozef Kroner
Unforgettable Slovak actor was born. He starred in “The Shop on Main Street”, film awarded with Oscar, and other more than 50 Slovak, Czech and Hungarian movies.

11. 01. 1925 Ice Hockey Championship
In Strbske Pleso (Tatra Mountains) started the 10th European Ice Hockey Championship. The winner was the team of Czechoslovakia, followed by Austria and Switzerland.

17. 01. 1928 Ludovit Korkos
Artist and professor Lodwik Korkos was born. He was inspired by Slovak folklore and was one of the most important people in the history of Slovak design and applied arts.

10. 02. 1932 Unemployment Strikes
In 30 Slovak places unemployment strikes and “hunger marches” took place in order to show the poverty of unemployed people.

16. 04. 1938 Rudolf Sloboda
Rudolf Sloboda was born in Devinska Nova Ves near Bratislava. He became known as a dramatist and editor. Several of his plays were filmed or played in theatres.

13. 03. 1939 Tiso Visiting Hitler
Hitler invited the deposed prime minister Jozef Tiso to Berlin and forced him to declare the independence of Slovakia, otherwise Hungary and Poland will be allowed to divide the territory of Slovakia.

14. 03. 1939 First Slovak State
After Tiso referred in the parliament about his meeting with Hitler in Berlin, Slovakia declared independence and the first Slovak State existed under German “supervision” for 6 years.

23. 03. 1939 “Small War” in Eastern Slovakia
Slovakia was attacked by Hungary, their troops entered the Slovak teritory in the morning. First there seemed to be no resistance, but few hours later came the counterattack of Slovak troops. The war lasted just few days.

02. 01. 1941 Stefan Banic
Stefan Banic, the inventor of the first actively used parachute, died in Smolenicka Nova Ves. 1907-1920 he lived in the USA where he registered his patent and sold it to the US Army. This parachute was used during the World War I.

04. 01. 1945 Genocide in Nemecka
In Slovak village Nemecka, Nazi troops started with execution of active anti-fascists and Jewish citizen. Until Jan 11th 900 people were killed. The bodies were burnt in the nearby Limestone factory.

21. 01. 1945 Nazi Persecution
German anti-partisan unit Edelweiss attacked Slovak villages Ostry Grun and Klak. 149 citizen were killed and villages burnt down.

19. 02. 1945 Anti-fascist Prisoners Killed
Many Slovak anti-fascist warriors died while as prisoners transported to the concentration camp in Mauthausen. The transport has been bombed by the Allied forces.

26. 03. 1945 Bombing of Nitra
Nitra was attacked by Soviet air force and although there were no German troops present, Soviets dropped more than 70 tons of bombs, which killed around 1000 people and damaged more than 300 buildings.

19. 04. 1945 Nazis Burn People Alive
In Slovak village Plostin Nazi troops burnt alive 28 inhabitants. The village was also burnt down. This kind of Faschist actions happened in Slovakia several times during the WW II.

03. 02. 1946 Old Bridge Bratislava
After this oldest still standing bridge in Bratislava was destroyed in the World Was 2, after the war it was re-built by the Red Army and German prisoners-of-war and re-opened on 03 Feb 1946.

25. 02. 1948 Victorious February
President of Czechoslovakia Edvard Benes accepted demission of twelve ministers and at the same time accepted new communist government members lead by Klement Gottwald. Gottwald became a president few months later.